By its very nature, written translation goes hand in hand with interpreting. Interpreting consists of transferring a phrase or speech from one language to another. "Interpreting" is an umbrella term, however, under which comes a range of different services: liaison interpreting, simultaneous interpreting, consecutive interpreting and chuchotage (whispered interpreting).
Liaison and simultaneous are the most widely requested forms of interpreting for numerous types of events, from international conferences to interviews with foreign personalities, as well as work meetings in which participants speak different languages. Simultaneous, liaison, consecutive and whispered interpreting all require excellent professional skills in the interpreter’s native language, but in choosing interpreters, careful consideration is given not only to their language abilities, but also to their personal skills and their approach to the client and the situation their services are required for.
The quality of interpreting services is based on the professional skills and approach of the individual providers, who must be able to pick up on every nuance of a speech delivered in a foreign language, containing a wealth of those cultural references that are part and parcel of the language concerned.
This is why entrusting such a delicate task to anyone other than a trained professional is likely to simply be a waste of resources. In addition, poor professional skills or incompetence in handling the interpreting aspect may have a negative impact on the outcome of the encounter or even result in failure to achieve the desired result. This is why flexibility, motivation, a professional approach and excellent language skills are qualities possessed by every interpreter “studio Ligabue” works with.


Liaison, or bilateral, interpreting is a type of consecutive interpreting between two or more parties within a conversation that generally takes place in an informal context, such as a work meeting, an encounter between companies or the signing of a contract.
In liaison interpreting, the interpreter sits between the two parties to the dialogue, memorising and then translating passages of the conversation, taking notes, if necessary, to render the salient points of the conversation more effectively. Numbers, dates and negotiation clauses are generally the types of information that must be translated accurately and with which the interpreter cannot afford to make any mistakes.


In consecutive interpreting, the interpreter starts translating after the speaker has finished speaking. The interpreter sits together with the participants, listens to the speech, and after a pause, uses the notes taken to translate the content into another language. Expert interpreters are able to translate speeches as long as 10 minutes or more with a high degree of accuracy.

These days consecutive interpreting has to a large extent been replaced by simultaneous interpreting, but it remains an important resource for a number of types of encounters: conventions in which highly technical content is being discussed, working lunches, small groups and business trips away from the office.


This “real-time” form of interpreting requires highly specialised training, because the interpreter must provide the translation of what is being said almost by speaking “on top” of the person speaking the source language: hence the term “simultaneous”. In simultaneous interpreting, two interpreters work together in a booth for a maximum of seven hours in total, taking it in turns so as to maintain concentration constantly at the required level. Instead of a booth, a portable briefcase-like device equipped with a microphone and earphones may be used, especially for situations in which both the interpreter and the listeners have to move from one place to another.

The number of interpreters required and the fees charged may vary depending on the languages the meeting is conducted in, the working hours and the subject dealt with. A single interpreter per booth may only be used for services lasting no longer than an hour.


Chuchotage is a form of simultaneous interpreting in which the interpreter stands or sits next to or behind participants and whispers the translation directly in their ear.

Chuchotage interpreting can be used only for a small number of guests standing or seated very close to one another. This technique is used in one-to-one or small group meetings in which participants do not share command of a common language. It is often used instead of consecutive interpreting to save time. Chuchotage interpreters may also use earphones to hear the speaker’s words more clearly.

The number of interpreters depends on the number of languages requested. This form of interpreting is contemplated for a maximum of three people.